Types of Energy Meter and their working Principles
Energy meter is an instrument which measures amount of electrical energy used by the consumers. Utilities install these instruments at every place like homes, industries, organizations to charge the electricity consumption by loads such as lights, fans and other appliances. When energy savings during certain periods are desired, some meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. “Time of day” metering allows electric rates to be changed during a day, to record usage during peak high-cost periods and off-peak, lower-cost, periods. Also, in some areas meters have relays for demand response load shedding during peak load periods.Most interesting type are used as prepaid electricity meters. Types of energy meter are given below with explanation
Basic unit of power is watts. One thousand watts is one kilowatt. If we use one kilowatt in one hour, it is considered as one unit of energy consumed. These meters measure the instantaneous voltage and currents, calculate its product and gives instantaneous power. This power is integrated over a period which gives the energy utilized over that time period.
Types of Energy Meter
Energy meter are classified in three basic types accordance with various factors such as:
1. Type of display
2. Technical like single phase, LT, three phases, HT and many more.
3. Type of Usage like domestic, commercial and industrial
4. Type of metering point
Types w.r.t Construction
According to construction energy meter classified into three types which are given below.
1. Electromechanical induction type
2. Electronic Energy Meter
3. Smart Energy Meter
Types w.r.t Phase
According to phase energy meter classified into three types which are given below.
1. Single Phase Energy Meter
2. Three Phase Energy Meter
Electronic Energy Meter
Electronic meters display the energy used on an LCD or LED display, and some can also transmit readings to remote places. In addition to measuring energy used, electronic meters can also record other parameters of the load and supply such as instantaneous and maximum rate of usage demands, voltages, power factor and reactive power used etc. They can also support time-of-day billing, for example, recording the amount of energy used during on-peak and off-peak hours.
These are of accurate, high procession and reliable types of measuring instruments as compared to conventional mechanical meters. It consumes less power and starts measuring instantaneously when connected to load. These meters might be analog or digital. In analog meters, power is converted to proportional frequency or pulse rate and it is integrated by counters placed inside it.
In digital electric meter power is directly measured by high end processor. The power is integrated by logic circuits to get the energy and also for testing and calibration purpose. It is then converted to frequency or pulse rate.
➢ Digital Electronic Energy Meter:
Digital signal processor or high performance microprocessors are used in digital electric meters. Similar to the analog meters, voltage and current transducers are connected to a high resolution ADC. Once it converts analog signals to digital samples, voltage and current samples are multiplied and integrated by digital circuits to measure the energy consumed.
Microprocessor also calculates phase angle between voltage and current, so that it also measures and indicates reactive power. It is programmed in such a way that it calculates energy according to the tariff and other parameters like power factor, maximum demand, etc and stores all these values in a non volatile memory EEPROM.
It contains real time clock (RTC) for calculating time for power integration, maximum demand calculations and also date and time stamps for particular parameters. Furthermore it interacts with liquid crystal display (LCD), communication devices and other meter outputs. Battery is provided for RTC and other significant peripherals for backup power.
Smart Energy Meter
A smart meter is an electronic device that records consumption of electric energy and communicates the information to the electricity supplier for monitoring and billing. Smart meters typically record energy hourly or more frequently, and report at least daily.
Smart meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system. Such an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) differs from automatic meter reading (AMR) in that it enables two-way communication between the meter and the supplier. Communications from the meter to the network may be wireless, or via fixed wired connections such as power line carrier (PLC). Wireless communication options in common use include cellular communications (which can be expensive), Wi-Fi (readily available), wireless ad hoc networks over Wi-Fi, wireless mesh networks, low power long range wireless (LoRa), ZigBee (low power, low data rate wireless), and Wi-SUN (Smart Utility Networks).
It is an advanced metering technology involving placing intelligent meters to read, process and feedback the data to customers. It measures energy consumption, remotely switches the supply to customers and remotely controls the maximum electricity consumption. Smart metering system uses the advanced metering infrastructure system technology for better performance.
These are capable of communicating in both directions. They can transmit the data to the utilities like energy consumption, parameter values, alarms, etc and also can receive information from utilities such as automatic meter reading system, reconnect/disconnect instructions, upgrading of meter software’s and other important messages.
These meters reduce the need to visit while taking or reading monthly bill. Modems are used in these smart meters to facilitate communication systems such as telephone, wireless, fiber cable, power line communications. Another advantage of smart metering is complete avoidance of tampering of energy meter where there is scope of using power in an illegal way.
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